Exercise 39

Logo Avogadro

If you have not already done so, download Avogadro for free and watch the tutorials if necessary.

Benzene is a component of derivatives of processed petroleum and crude petroleum. It is a colourless, highly flammable liquid widely present in the air as it develops from vehicles and industrial discharges, both from natural events such as fires and volcanic eruptions, and from the smoke of cigarettes. Benzene derivatives are benzene molecules in which one or more hydrogens have been replaced. For example, toluene is the current name of methylbenzene and xylene, the current name of dimethylbenzene, are benzene derivatives found in air. Find out how to reduce the concentrations of these pollutants by reading the sheet…

Open an Avogadro page and recall the benzene molecule (sequence Fileà importà fetch by chemical name). Build the toluene molecule and the xylene molecule on another Avogadro page. 
How many xylene isomers can you build?

How does the number and location of methyl groups influence the boiling point of these substances?

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